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However, the practical implementation of DVC involves important challenges such as implementation complexity, calculation accuracy and computational efficiency. In this paper, a least-squares framework is presented for 3D internal displacement and strain field measurement using DVC. The proposed DVC combines a practical linear-intensity-change model with an easy-to-implement iterative least-squares ILS algorithm to retrieve 3D internal displacement vector field with sub-voxel accuracy. Because the linear-intensity-change model is capable of accounting for both the possible intensity changes and the relative geometric transform of the target subvolume, the presented DVC thus provides the highest sub-voxel registration accuracy and widest applicability. Furthermore, as the ILS algorithm uses only first-order spatial derivatives of the deformed volumetric image, the developed DVC thus significantly reduces computational complexity. To further extract 3D strain distributions from the 3D discrete displacement vectors obtained by the ILS algorithm, the presented DVC employs a pointwise least-squares algorithm to estimate the strain components for each measurement point.

## Top 10 Best Online Dating Sites Rankings 2018

The following algorithm versions may be used, depending on the information that is available: F x is represented as sum of squares. We have function vector f only. Jacobian is calculated using combination of numerical differentiation and secant updates. We have function vector f and Jacobian J.

CRANで公開されているR言語のパッケージの一覧をご紹介する。英語でのパッケージの短い説明文はBing翻訳またはGoogle翻訳を使用させていただき機械的に翻訳したものを掲載した。.

Advanced Search Abstract Phylogenies provide a useful way to understand the evolutionary history of genetic samples, and data sets with more than a thousand taxa are becoming increasingly common, notably with viruses e. Dating ancestral events is one of the first, essential goals with such data. However, current sophisticated probabilistic approaches struggle to handle data sets of this size. Here, we present very fast dating algorithms, based on a Gaussian model closely related to the Langley—Fitch molecular-clock model.

We show that this model is robust to uncorrelated violations of the molecular clock. Our algorithms apply to serial data, where the tips of the tree have been sampled through times. They estimate the substitution rate and the dates of all ancestral nodes. When the input tree is unrooted, they can provide an estimate for the root position, thus representing a new, practical alternative to the standard rooting methods e. Our algorithms exploit the tree recursive structure of the problem at hand, and the close relationships between least-squares and linear algebra.

We distinguish between an unconstrained setting and the case where the temporal precedence constraint i.

## Fast Dating Using Least-Squares Criteria and Algorithms

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The simulation cases indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Introduction System modeling [ 1 — 5 ] and parameter estimation [ 6 — 10 ] are basic for controller design [ 11 , 12 ].

The earliest instances of what might today be called genetic algorithms appeared in the late s and early s, programmed on computers by evolutionary biologists who were explicitly seeking to model aspects of natural evolution.

Object containing the optimized parameter and several goodness-of-fit statistics. Changed in version 0. Return value changed to MinimizerResult. Notes The objective function should return the value to be minimized. For the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm from leastsq , this returned value must be an array, with a length greater than or equal to the number of fitting variables in the model. For the other methods, the return value can either be a scalar or an array.

If an array is returned, the sum of squares of the array will be sent to the underlying fitting method, effectively doing a least-squares optimization of the return values. A common use for and kws would be to pass in other data needed to calculate the residual, including such things as the data array, dependent variable, uncertainties in the data, and other data structures for the model calculation.

On output, params will be unchanged. The best-fit values and, where appropriate, estimated uncertainties and correlations, will all be contained in the returned MinimizerResult. See MinimizerResult — the optimization result for further details. This function is simply a wrapper around Minimizer and is equivalent to:

## Research Reports

We derive the criterion in a form that allows easy comparisons with other BSS and Independent Component Analysis ICA contrast functions like cumulants, Bussgang criteria, and information theoretic contrasts. This clarifies how the nonlinearity should be chosen optimally. Furthermore, we show that a nonlinear PCA criterion can be minimized using least-squares approaches, leading to computationally efficient and fast converging algorithms. The paper shows that nonlinear PCA is a versatile starting point for deriving different kinds of algorithms for blind signal processing problems.

Show Context Citation Context ! Therefore, all the global minima there are several of J 1 correspond exact

1. Introduction. Since the early s, the process of deregulation and the introduction of competitive markets have been reshaping the landscape of the traditionally .

Fast dating using least-squares criteria and algorithms To T. ABSTRACT Phylogenies provide a useful way to understand the evolutionary history of genetic samples, and data sets with more than a thousand taxa are becoming increasingly common, notably with viruses e. Dating ancestral events is one of the first, essential goals with such data. However, current sophisticated probabilistic approaches struggle to handle data sets of this size.

Here, we present very fast dating algorithms, based on a Gaussian model closely related to the Langley—Fitch molecular-clock model. We show that this model is robust to uncorrelated violations of the molecular clock. Our algorithms apply to serial data, where the tips of the tree have been sampled through times. They estimate the substitution rate and the dates of all ancestral nodes. When the input tree is unrooted, they can provide an estimate for the root position, thus representing a new, practical alternative to the standard rooting methods e.

Our algorithms exploit the tree recursive structure of the problem at hand, and the close relationships between least-squares and linear algebra. We distinguish between an unconstrained setting and the case where the temporal precedence constraint i. With rooted trees, the former is solved using linear algebra in linear computing time i. With unrooted trees the computing time becomes nearly quadratic i.

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I thought I’d try to synthesize what I took away from the posts and how my own thinking has developed. First up, I think it’s gratifying to see that the the basic premise: There was a time in the not-so-distant past that I wouldn’t be able to even establish this baseline in conversations that I’d have. The argument therefore has moved to one of tradeoffs:

Contents Awards Printed Proceedings Online Proceedings Cross-conference papers Awards In honor of its 25th anniversary, the Machine Learning Journal is sponsoring the awards for the student authors of the best and distinguished papers.

A more flexible representation of substantive theory. Psychological Methods, 17, Click “”download paper”” below for the latest version of October 21, Download the 2nd version dated April 14, Click here to view the seven web tables referred to in the paper and here to view Mplus inputs, data, and outputs used in this version of paper. Download the 1st version dated September 29, containing a MIMIC section and more tables, and the corresponding Mplus inputs, data, and outputs here.

The seven web tables correspond to tables 8, 10, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the first version. The new approach replaces parameter specifications of exact zeros with approximate zeros based on informative, small-variance priors. It is argued that this produces an analysis that better rejects substantive theories. The proposed Bayesian approach is particularly beneficial in applications where parameters are added to a conventional model such that a non-identified model is obtained if maximum-likelihood estimation is applied.

This approach is useful for measurement aspects of latent variable modeling such as with CFA and the measurement part of SEM. Two application areas are studied, cross-loadings and residual correlations in CFA.

## Category of R package on github by topic model

Optimization problems[ edit ] Genetic Algorithm has been used extensively “as a powerful tool to solve various optimization problems such as integer nonlinear problems INLP ” [3]. In a genetic algorithm, a population of candidate solutions called individuals, creatures, or phenotypes to an optimization problem is evolved toward better solutions. Each candidate solution has a set of properties its chromosomes or genotype which can be mutated and altered; traditionally, solutions are represented in binary as strings of 0s and 1s, but other encodings are also possible.

In each generation, the fitness of every individual in the population is evaluated; the fitness is usually the value of the objective function in the optimization problem being solved. The more fit individuals are stochastically selected from the current population, and each individual’s genome is modified recombined and possibly randomly mutated to form a new generation.

The new generation of candidate solutions is then used in the next iteration of the algorithm.

Vol.7, No.3, May, Mathematical and Natural Sciences. Study on Bilinear Scheme and Application to Three-dimensional Convective Equation (Itaru Hataue and Yosuke Matsuda).

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## Genetic algorithm

As Big Data is the hottest trend in the tech industry at the moment, machine learning is incredibly powerful to make predictions or calculated suggestions based on large amounts of data. So if you want to learn more about machine learning, how do you start? For me, my first introduction is when I took an Artificial Intelligence class when I was studying abroad in Copenhagen. My lecturer is a full-time Applied Math and CS professor at the Technical University of Denmark, in which his research areas are logic and artificial, focusing primarily on the use of logic to model human-like planning, reasoning and problem solving.

The textbook that we used is one of the AI classics:

Mar 12, · The relatively thin atmospheric cocoon that protects us from meteor impacts and radiation also makes for a habitable climate, thanks to the greenhouse gases it .

February 8, Code-Dependent: Pros and Cons of the Algorithm Age Algorithms are aimed at optimizing everything. They can save lives, make things easier and conquer chaos. Recipes are algorithms, as are math equations. Computer code is algorithmic. The internet runs on algorithms and all online searching is accomplished through them. Email knows where to go thanks to algorithms. Smartphone apps are nothing but algorithms.

Computer and video games are algorithmic storytelling. Online dating and book-recommendation and travel websites would not function without algorithms. GPS mapping systems get people from point A to point B via algorithms. Artificial intelligence AI is naught but algorithms.

## Code-Dependent: Pros and Cons of the Algorithm Age

This chapter discusses doing these types of fits using the most common technique: The next section provides background information on this topic. Although it uses some functions from EDA for illustration, the purpose of the section is not to be an introduction to those functions; rather, this section is intended as an introduction to the issues in linear fitting that the EDA functions implement.

Subsequent sections of this chapter introduce and discuss the EDA functions that do least-squares linear fits. Calling the dependent variable y and the independent one x, a general representation of such a model can be given. Here the a[k] are the parameters to be fit, and X[x, k] are called the “basis” functions.

Title Authors Published Abstract Publication Details; Analysis of the CLEAR Protocol per the National Academies’ Framework Steven M. Bellovin, Matt Blaze, Dan Boneh, Susan Landau, Ronald L. Rivest.

A simple change of variables yields , which is in the same form as the unweighted case. To manually perform this transformation, the residuals and Jacobian should be modified according to For large systems, the user must perform their own weighting. This method is available only for large systems. This choice of makes the problem scale-invariant, so that if the model parameters are each scaled by an arbitrary constant, , then the sequence of iterates produced by the algorithm would be unchanged.

This method can work very well in cases where the model parameters have widely different scales ie: This strategy has been proven effective on a large class of problems and so it is the library default, but it may not be the best choice for all problems. This method has also proven effective on a large class of problems, but is not scale-invariant. However, some authors e.

Transtrum and Sethna argue that this choice is better for problems which are susceptible to parameter evaporation ie: This method will produce reliable solutions in cases where the Jacobian is rank deficient or near-singular but does require about twice as many operations as the Cholesky method discussed below. This method is faster than the QR approach, however it is susceptible to numerical instabilities if the Jacobian matrix is rank deficient or near-singular. In these cases, an attempt is made to reduce the condition number of the matrix using Jacobi preconditioning, but for highly ill-conditioned problems the QR approach is better.